Many new or passive golfers are happy to just go out and swing the golf club when they play a round of golf. It can certainly be enjoyable, but there is hardly any player who can play consistently good golf without having an understanding of the basics of the golf swing. And if a golfer gets into those basics the concept of golf swing plane will certainly come up.
The swing plane is going to affect the trajectory and the direction of the ball. It involves the path and angle of the golf club during the back swing and the downswing. The swing plane is the tilt of the incline of the club shaft as it travels throughout the swing. It could range from being totally upright like a Ferris Wheel, or completely flat like a baseball swing. The golf swing obviously is somewhere in between these two.
The golfer’s golf swing plane will be dependent on the length of club the golfer is using in addition to his height and posture. The swing plane for that particular swing will be determined at set-up. If you are using a wedge, because of its shorter shaft you will be standing much closer to the ball as compared to the longer-shafted driver. Therefore with the wedge the angle of the shaft will be much more pronounced to the ground. The idea is to keep the shaft of the club on the same angle throughout the entire swing as it is at set-up.
The same golfer using a driver will have a flatter swing plane. This obviously is because the greater length of the driver requires us to stand farther from the ball, therefore creating a less severe club angle to the ground. When we swing the driver to stay on the same plane throughout the swing that we had at set-up will require a flatter swing.
So what are the advantages of a flatter swing plane or a more upright swing? All other things being equal, a flatter swing should allow the entire swing to stay connected; therefore timing the swing should be easier. The lower trajectory that the flatter swing should give the golf ball will make it easier to draw the ball. The more upright swing, similar to the pendulum putting stroke, will keep the club face on line better, allowing for a straighter ball and more consistency for the shot for some golfers.
As with almost anything in golf, what works for some might not be the answer for others. Shorter golfers like Ben Hogan and Gary Player have preferred the flat swing plane. Jack Nicklaus perhaps was the most famous golfer who advocated the upright plane, and in his prime was almost 6′ tall. For the most part if you are a taller golfer and stand erect to the ball, the more upright swing plane will probably feel more comfortable to you.
The Recent Role of Green House effect in climate change
Global air pollution monitoring has provided concrete evidence that human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, agriculture development, waste generation, synthetic chemicals production, biomass burning, and changes in land use are significantly altering levels of radiatively and chemically active greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols in the atmosphere leading to green house effect. Green house effect is a term used to describe the roles of GHGs in keeping the earth’s surface warmer than it would otherwise be. There is concern that increasing concentrations of green house gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and man-made chlorofluorocarbons, may enhance the green house effect and cause global warming which in turn leads to global climate change.
Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth’s temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate patterns. A change in the net energy available to the global atmosphere system is called “radiative forcing‟; it can be natural or anthropogenic. The radiative forcing can be positive meaning it will warm and negative meaning it will cool the climate system. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on flora and fauna and humans. (http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/causes.html)
Global warming is an indicator of climate change. It is often misunderstood to imply that the world will warm uniformly. In fact, some areas of the world will warm more, while others will warm less than the global average. Natural variability, year-to-year, decade-to-decade, is superimposed on this long-term change.
Causes of climate change
1. Human activities (anthropogenic factors)
Human activities such as land use, changes in land cover, and industrialization are also known to be among the dominant forces responsible for most of the global warming through changes in/release of Greenhouse gases. The rapid rate of urbanization and the surge in industrialization has led to increased fossil fuel burnings and ultimately leading to increased carbon dioxide emission. The action of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in trapping infrared radiation is called the greenhouse effect. Increased green house effect leads to global warming. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, agricultural activities such as use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have been shown to cause significant effects on global climate change, primarily through the production and release of GHGs such as methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. (http://www.climatechangechallenge.org/Resource%20Centre/Climate-Change/3-what_causes_climate_change.htm)
2. Natural causes of climate change
The earth’s climate is significantly influenced and even changed through some natural activities such as volcanic eruptions, ocean currents, earth-orbital changes, and variations in solar radiation. Changes that occur in the sun itself affect the intensity of the solar radiation that strikes the earth’s surface. The intensity of the sunlight can cause either global atmospheric warming (during periods of stronger solar intensity) or cooling (during periods of weaker solar intensity) which in turn affects the global climate. Volcanic substances increase the earth’s albedo (reflectivity) by reflecting a substantial amount of light back to space resulting into surface cooling.